Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and. This does not mean that a work of art can always be justly valued in terms of the moral standards ruling at the time – on the contrary, one need only think of Goya’s Caprichos or of a book like The Grapes of Wrath to realize how often art has been an indictment of those standards. In 1902 the family moved to Goslar in Although, in his view, beauty is that which evokes life and although art reproduces what interests man in life, it by no means follows that art reproduces only what is beautiful in nature. Klingender & Alsop dissolved their partnership in 1920 as a result of Alsop’s ill health, and Klingender formed a new partnership with R B Hamilton. (source: Nielsen Book Data) Summary Satta Hashem, email to Suheyla Takesh, November 25, 2017. You see the sense of poetry is analogous to the things represented in painting. Art and the Industrial Revolution. But in reproducing life, the artist also, consciously or unconsciously, expresses his opinion of it, and it is by virtue of this that ‘art becomes a moral activity of man.’. … But an idea can never be fully realised in a particular thing and therefore art, which aims at ideal perfection, always contains an element of myth or illusion. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. The statement that it is the function of art to reproduce everything that interests man in life implies that the particular image created must be ‘of interest to man generally and not merely to the artist’. It is scarcely necessary to point out that this profound idea is utterly incompatible with the formalism of Roger Fry. It was not, therefore, to the conflicts and the squalor of the real world that Tennyson returned, but to the sham idealism with which the Victorian squire and business man sought to conceal the contradictions of that world. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. (Francis Donald). Chernyshevski’s conception, on the other hand, anticipates the theories of William Morris and of all modern exponents of ‘functional’ design. Dec. 31st, 2020. He might attempt to compose an ideal figure embodying courage, toughness, a weather-beaten appearance, all those general qualities, in short, which the experience of desert warfare has imprinted on each member of that veteran force. what is politics? the reflex behaviour inherited from the pre-human stage of our evolution – ends. Such works will be, as it were, composed on themes set by life.’. Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. I mean this, that since the imaginative life comes in the course of time to represent more or less what mankind feels to be the completest expression of its own nature, the freest use of its innate capacities, the actual life may be explained and justified by its approximation here and there, however partially and inadequately, to that freer and fuller life.’ , It is interesting to note that Fry was by no means critical of the moral standards of his own age, when he wrote this passage. (Francis Donald). In other words, the interval of reflection which Fry claims as the distinguishing feature of artistic perception, is just as essential in any behaviour that can be subjected to a moral test. On the one hand the poet is tempted and passionately desires to escape into the ‘God-like isolation’ of pure art,  on the other hand he realizes that isolation will lead him to despair and death. Secondly, moreover, it is untrue that artistic perception itself is never followed by responsive action. 11. According to this, the purpose of art is 'de-familiarization'. Their conception of good art and of its relation to life is thus on their own admission incompatible with the present need of reuniting art and the people. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. Now this responsive action implies in actual life moral responsibility. Morality appreciates emotion by the standard of resultant action, art appreciates emotion in and for itself.’ . As Shklovsky wrote elsewhere: 'A new form appears not in order to express a new content, but in order to replace an old form, which has already lost its artistic value.' Her spunky sculptures look like doodles formed in 2D, which relate back to her formal training in painting and drawing. David A. Siqueiros: 'Towards a Transformation of the Plastic Arts' 1934. Chernyshevski anticipated Fry in pointing out that beauty in nature is entirely distinct from the aesthetic element in art. In terms of art, line is considered to be a moving dot. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. Roger Fry’s Formalism. Though brilliant and plausible, this argument will not bear examination. However, most typically, form is defined by a combination of these factors, as is the case in this print by Max Ernst. Nevertheless, he bases his analysis exclusively on what he takes to be the psychology of the individual, or rather of ‘man’ in the abstract. Art is thus a striking and at the same time a peculiarly revealing illustration of the key conception of dialectics, the unity of opposites. Francis Klingender, Evelyn Antal, John P Harthan. Suppose that a painter, sculptor, writer or film director sets out to create a striking and significant image of, say, the soldier of the 8th Army. In the first place, moral responsibility only begins where the type of action Fry calls instinctive – i.e. As Francis Klingender states in . But he immediately points out: ‘Perfection of form (unity of idea and form) is not a characteristic of art in the aesthetic sense of the term “fine art” only. ‘What matters in art is the contemplation of form’ and ‘in proportion as art gets purer, the number of people to whom it appeals gets less’, say the formalists. 37–84. Realism as Critique. Klingender "Content and Form in Art" (437-9). The haunting fear, the doubt that all was not as it appeared to be, the agony and the despair, which the Victorians tried to conceal under a mask of complacent decorum, break out with unsurpassed intensity in many of his poems. essentially social. But he was rudely shaken out of his complacency in social matters by the events of 1914-18. Though greatly accentuated since the beginning of the twentieth century, this isolation of the artists was not new, and in Fry’s case, too, the tendency of divorcing art from life was already implicit in his theory of 1909. The significance of muralism in the United States has received considerable attention in art historical treatments of the period.5 The modernisation and revitalisation of American wall painting was the result of a number of cultural factors, perhaps most importantly the establishment from 1933 of federal funding for public art under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal administration.6 Scant mention can be found of the influence of the American example for artists in England, yet renewed interest in muralis… Andre Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. His mother, also British, was Florence Hoette (Klingender) (d. 1944). It can also indicate value and a light source in drawing. And it also means that the aesthetic value of a work of art must in some way be related to the effect it produces, not merely in its own time, but as long as it survives. He even compared them favourably with those of the thirteenth century, although he regarded the latter period as more artistic. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ‘Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. True, such conclusions and ideas are much less complete and universal than life. For Fry seeks the aesthetic element precisely in the contemplation of form apart from its purpose and divorced from the content which it forms. Lest any Fabian should be crude enough to suspect that the lecturer was referring to ordinary human beings, when he spoke of ‘life’, he hastened to explain: ‘And here let me try to say what I mean by life as contrasted with art. Against this theory Chernyshevski advances the claim: ‘Reality is greater than dreams and essential significance more important than fantastic pretensions.’ Hence he seeks beauty not in any ideal sphere remote from reality and opposed to it, but in the essence of reality itself. Fry admits that art is communication, i.e. Art and the Industrial Revolution. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ′Great Exhibition of German Art′ 1937. But whereas the Victorians tolerated a realistic attitude to Nature and society only if it was overlayed with sentimentality, as in Dickens or in the later work of George Cruikshank, the tradition of uncompromising realism continued to advance in nineteenth-century France and Russia. Life as a teacher, as a channel of knowledge, is more full and accurate, even more artistic than all the works of all the scientists and poets. 11. But who would claim that science does not lead to responsive action or that it is ‘freed from the binding necessities of our actual existence’? Action implies moral responsibility. The image that would result from such an attempt to distil only what is general from a multitude of living individuals, would be of the type which is only too familiar from hundreds of war memorials up and down the country. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ‘Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. In Animals in Art and Thought Francis Klingender discusses these various attitudes in a survey which ranges from prehistoric cave art to the later Middle Ages. The first systematic account of Fry’s attitude to these questions is the important ‘Essay in Aesthetics’ of 1909. ‘In real life all happenings are true and correct, there are no oversights, none of that one-sided narrowness of vision which attaches to all human works. But it is easy to exaggerate the difference between these two conceptions of art. Stripped of its illusions, the ideal beauty depicted by art loses its power to console men for the imperfections of reality. ‘It would seem that the definitions “Beauty is life,” “Beautiful are all things in which we see life as, according to our conceptions, it should be,” “Beautiful is an object which expresses life or reminds us of it” give a satisfactory explanation of all the ways in which the feeling of beauty is roused in us.’ . Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. But had they not been drawn for us by men of genius, our own conclusions would be even more narrow and inadequate. The idea is sounder and more interesting than Klingender's Freudian orthodoxy allows him to admit. Francis Klingender: ′Content and Form in Art′ 1935. But from about 1870 onwards, as the pressure increased, this critical attitude was more and more replaced by assumed indifference, the artist retreated into ever remoter realms of ‘purely’ aesthetic experience, and the further he retreated, the more rapidly did the sweets he coveted turn to ashes in his mouth. They, too, can obtain general significance only through a profound reflection of the particular. 1935. This mythical element is progressively destroyed by the advance of science which, consequently, results in a decline of art. Taking as his stalking horse a Symbolist literary theory, Shklovsky outlines an opposing view of the nature of art. The objects become entry points to knowledge and imagining, creating an in-between space to slip in and out of, with the objects acting as a sort of portal. Whereas in ordinary life perception is followed by responsive action – the sight of a bull rushing towards us makes us turn to instant flight – Fry claims that artistic perception is of the kind we experience when we see the bull, not in the flesh, but on the screen of a cinema: we enjoy the emotion of fear because we need not act upon it. Form in relation to positive and negative space . Although by 1909 Fry had already abandoned the ‘idea of likeness to Nature, of correctness or incorrectness as a test’ – he had just discovered Cézanne – he was, as he himself says, ‘still obsessed by ideas about the content of a work of art’, for he still felt that the ‘aesthetic whole’ somehow reflected ‘the emotions of life’. In this respect the images created by art resemble beautiful objects in nature. And it was here, where he ceased to be pontifical and gave free vent to his emotions, that Tennyson became the true mirror of an important aspect of his age. The quality which is most striking in The Palace of Art is its ambiguity. Francis Donald Klingender (1907 – 9 July 1955) was a Marxist art historian and exponent of Kunstsoziologie whose uncompromising views meant that he never quite fitted into the British art … André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. The impact of the Industrial Revolution on modern economic, social, and political life is unquestionably profound. to form divorced and abstracted from that which it forms, Fry excluded everything which art was ever intended to convey to mankind. Francis Klingender: ‘Content and Form in Art' 1935. In his pictures or novels, poems or plays such a man will bring up or solve some problem with which life faces thinking men and women. Conscious that works of art inspire different kinds of emotion, he attempts, by introspection, to isolate one specific emotion which is common to all these various compounds, on the assumption that this ‘constant’ factor would reveal the ‘substance’, the irreducible atom, so to speak, of aesthetic experience. Both agree that the real world in its rich and concrete actuality has no aesthetic significance. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. Those capable of doing so are, he admits, but few: ‘in proportion as art becomes purer, the number of people to whom it appeals gets less’,  he had already told the Fabians in 1917. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1975); and Francis D. Klingender, “Content and Form in Art,” in Art in Theory, 1900-2000, ed. Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. Frogmore, St. Albans: Paladin, 1975, reprinted, xv, 272pp., PAPERBACK, good used reading copy BUT black ink marks mostly in margins on about 19 pages towards start of book. The Materiality of Exhibition Photography in the Modernist Era: Form, Content, Consequence. For Klingender, they exist in a form of duality, open and closed, individual and collective. Of all the critics who have helped to mould our present standards of appreciation none can equal the influence of Roger Fry, the founder of British post-impressionism. Harrison and Wood, 437. Unlike mathematics which interprets reality by reducing its multiplicity to abstract laws, art reproduces reality by means of images. Realism as Critique. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. To quote Fry’s own account, the discussion stimulated by the appearance of ‘post-impressionism’ revealed ‘that some artists who were peculiarly sensitive to the formal relations of works of art... had almost no sense of the emotions’ of life which he had supposed them to convey. But it does mean that society cannot be indifferent whether a given work of art inspires by its profound insight, whether it stirs to action, whether it soothes and refreshes, or whether, on the other hand, it opiates and disrupts.
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